Friday, November 17, 2017

The Changing House Numbers in This is Us (S2 E8): A Cryptological Study

[SPOILER ALERT: If you have not watched This is Us S2 E8 "Number One," watch it before continuing to read. If you don't watch This is Us at all, stop everything you are doing and binge watch it up to and including S2 E8 before continuing to read! The show is that good!]

I am not a professional Cryptologist (someone who specializes in cracking codes). I was, however, an Arabic linguist at the National Security Agency (NSA) after 9/11, where I took a week long class at the National Cryptologic School entitled "Cryptology 1010: Introduction to Manual and Machine Cryptosystems." In that course I did learn the principles of encryption and decryption. So I do know something of the field and my proposed solution to a separate cryptological puzzle was even published in the Birmingham Post.

But before I say more about the NSA, I have watched This is Us from the start. I both cry easily from emotional programming and rather enjoy it. And This is Us is, therefore, the best show currently on television.

I worked at the NSA for four years, during which time I was awarded the Global War on Terrorism Civilian Service Medal for service in Iraq in 2004. Nowadays I'm a mild-mannered Latin teacher at a public high school and weekly look forward to Tuesday night's episode of This is Us on NBC.

If you have not already spotted it or heard about it, there was a curious change in the numbers on the old Pearson House in "Number One" (S2 E8). I'm not going to lie. You deserve the truth. I did not spot this when I first watched the episode. My twin brother Kevin, who equally loves the show, brought it to my attention.

Kevin (Pearson, not my twin) is on his way to his old high school to accept an award, but he takes a detour to look at the spot of their old house. As he looks at the house rebuilt on the spot of the old house, you can see that the house number is 1920.


In his mind's eye, he then sees back into the past to the aftermath of the fire that presumably killed his father, Jack Pearson. You can see on the mailbox in front of the charred remnants that the old house was also number 1920.


As Kevin stands there, a man steps out of the house and says, "Hey! Can I help you?" But the number on the house next to the man is, strangely, 1646, not 1920.



Flustered Kevin retreats back to his Uber and leaves. As we look back on the man going back into his home, the number of the house is, once again, 1920.



Let's explore the possibilities of this curious inconsistency.

Simple Continuity Error?

Maybe they scouted out this house that they thought would work nicely as the "rebuilt" house. For privacy reasons perhaps they decided to CGI the Pearson address (1920) over the real number (1646). But someone goofed, the correction was not included in that brief scene over Kevin's shoulder. It means nothing at all.

And let's also point out the address on the house is itself an apparent continuity error with a previous episode. When, in the episode "Déjà Vu" (S2 E3), Randall takes out a newspaper ad looking for his biological parents, we see that the address on a response he receives is very clearly "34153 Forest Road, Bethel Park, PA 15102."

I don't accept that this was a mere mix-up. The numbers on the house are not just accidentally in the scenes. They are prominent. They mean something.

Meaning Yet to be Revealed

So maybe the producers will eventually just admit it was a continuity error (but don't bet on that). In the meantime, I'll offer some ideas based on potential patterns in the numbers. 

Possibly the number change is indeed significant but the true meaning will rely on information we have not yet been given in the show. If that is the case, the numbers 1920 and 1646 do not yet provide us with the clues to decipher this puzzle.

A Cryptological Approach

Maybe, however, the numbers 1920 and 1646 are sufficient clues based on information we already have in the show.

From what I have learned in the field of Cryptology, we look for patterns that may be meaningful.

1) 1920

This is the supposed actual house number (setting aside the address in "Déjà Vu" [S2 E3]). So at face value, this number theoretically means nothing, it's only the curious insertion of 1646 that would have potential meaning.

But before we move on, S2 E6 was itself entitled "The 20's." It showed us a timeline we had not previously experienced.  If we interpret the number 1920 as the two consecutive numbers 19-20 (Nineteen becomes Twenty, and now we are in the Twenties), this could be a way to tell us that the 20's are yet a timeline in which we will learn important things about the Pearsons. 

2) 1646

Taking our cue from the idea that 1920 = 19 into 20, then 1646 = 16 into 46.

16 to 46 is 30 years. Now, the show itself begins (S1 E1) on the 36th birthdays of Jack, but also Kate, Randall, and Kevin. So 30 does not seem to be of any known significance to the show. 

Conclusion

Look, you can add the numbers together (3566).  You can subtract the smaller from the largest (274). There's just nothing here. There is not enough information yet provided to make sense of these numbers. If they mean something, we don't yet know how and why. 

The ages 16 and 46 are not significant to any of the principals in a way that would require their prominence.

And I therefore conclude that the solution somehow lies in that man at the door next to the number 1646.

Who is he? 

He asked Kevin, "Hey! Can I help you?"

And Kevin, later collapsed in front of Charlotte's house, said, "I just need someone to help me!" (This was my twin brother Kevin's observation.)

Kevin clearly needs help. Who's out there to help him?

Here's my long-shot theory.

That man is Nicky, Jack Pearson's brother, whether spiritually or actually present. Nicky gave that Buddhist pendant to Jack when they were in Vietnam.

And 1646 will yet be explained to us...

Sunday, October 22, 2017

October 22: Happy Birthday, Earth!

Introduction

First off, I do not believe that the Earth was created on October 22, 4004 BCE. I accept, with no notion that my Christian faith is thereby threatened, the prevailing scientific model that holds the universe began in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago and that after a series of stellar explosions, the stuff making up our current solar system coalesced into our Sun and the planets orbiting it.

But in this post I will explore the methodology with which Archbishop James Ussher believed he determined the above specific date to be the beginning of Creation.

James Ussher was the Anglican Archbishop of  Armagh and Primate of All (Protestant) Ireland from 1625 to 1656. A scholar of note in his day, he took upon himself the task of calculating the age of the Earth, primarily following the Bible, but with reference to secular historical texts as well.


Ancient Chronologies

The ancient Babylonians had ancient king lists that claimed to describe history dating back 470,000 years, a notion that Cicero thought was ludicrous (De Divinatione 1.19). Modern Archaeology would favor Cicero's opinion on this point. Diogenes Laertius records that the Egyptians believed the first philosopher, Hephaestus, Son of the Nile, lived 48.863 years before Alexander the Great (born 356 BCE), putting that mythical man intriguingly close in time to what Archaeology asserts as the emergence of Modern Homo Sapiens in Africa.

James Ussher, however, would base all of his findings only on what he could find in Scripture, ideally corroborated by other historical records.


Previous Theories

Many before Ussher had performed similar calculations. Early Christian writers tended to date Creation to the 5000's BCE, for instance Clement of Alexandria who calculated the date as 5592 BCE (Stromata 1.21). The Byzantine Calendar similarly places it at 5509 BCE.

The Hebrew Calendar, following early Jewish scholar Jose ben Halafta, places the Creation much later--at 3761 BCE. This is all owing to the fact that the Early Christians were following the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Septuagint, for their numbers. The Septuagint consistently has the ancient Patriarchs a hundred years older at the time of their sons' births. For instance, in the Hebrew Bible, Adam is 130 years old when Seth is born (Genesis 5:3); in the Septuagint he is 230. When you add up all of these differences, your chronology comes out nearly 2000 years more ancient.


Arriving at 4004 BCE

Ussher arrived at his proposed year of Creation by following a long-standing tradition that believed the world was only slated to last a total of 6000 years. This is expressed, for instance, in the Talmud, which describes the Tanna debe Eliyyahu as stating, "The world is to exist 6000 years. The first 2000 years are to be void; the next 2000 years are the period of the Torah; the following 2000 years are the period of the Messiah" (Abodah Zara 9a).

While Ussher believed that Creation was exactly 4000 years before the birth of Jesus, he worked out for himself how the events recorded in the Hebrew worked out to that exact number. Recall from above that the Hebrew chronology comes out much into the 3000's, while the Septuagint tradition followed by earlier Christians has been in the 5000's. Ussher's interpretation of the various sequences of time got him to his blessed number. The 6th century CE monk Dionysius Exiguus, who created the concept of Anno Domini (AD) had determined Jesus' birth to be year 1 of that chronological unit. But Ussher accepted the belief of scholars in his day (and today) that King Herod the Great had died in 4 BCE. Since the Gospel of Matthew (2:1) clearly states that Jesus was born while Herod was king, Ussher placed the birth of Jesus in the last year of Herod's reign, 4 BCE.


But What Day?

But Archbishop Ussher was not done. He believed it was possible to go one step further. He believed, following the Jewish tradition of New Year in the Fall (Rosh Ha-Shanah), that creation happened in the Autumn. Since, of course, Creation happened on a Sunday (the First Day), he determined that the Sunday after the Autumnal Equinox in 4004 BCE was October 23. Furthermore, he understood the creation of Light on that First Day to have followed what happened in Genesis 1:1, "In the Beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth." Therefore, the actual Creation, according to Ussher was at the beginning of the Evening preceding that First Day. And so, Ussher arrived at his conclusion:

The Earth was created at approximately 6 PM on October 22, 4004 BCE.

In the final analysis, the Earth was not actually "born" on any single day, rather the material that makes up the Earth was generated, ultimately, at the Big Bang. Subsequent stellar explosions have more directly generated the specific material that makes up our dear planet. One wonders, as our cosmological knowledge is refined, might it be possible to calculate the Big Bang with ever greater precision and eventually arrive at something as specific as an actual year, or even a month and day? At any rate, as I look at NASA's Blue Marble, the best picture our planet ever sat for, I am no less in awe of a Marvelous God who could create through billions of years than Ussher was of the God he sincerely believed created the world on this day, 6021 years ago.








Thursday, October 19, 2017

The Battle of Zama: October 19, 202 BCE

On this day, October 19, in the year 202 BCE, Roman forces under the command of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, and with support from the Numidian King Masinissa, faced off against a Carthaginian force led by Hannibal himself. 

After waging war in Italy itself for over a decade, Hannibal was finally called back by the Carthaginian leaders when Scipio brought the war to their homeland.

Hannibal seems to have significantly overestimated the affect of his elephant core, which were essentially neutralized when Scipio ordered his men to spread out, allowing the elephants to pass through them without inflicting anywhere near the damage which they then received from Roman missiles. 

By the end of the battle, it was a complete rout, with the Romans losing only 2500 or so troops, while the Carthaginians saw 20,000 killed and another 20,000 captured.

The two generals would meet again, at a dinner party in 193 BCE hosted by the Seleucid King Antiochus III. When Scipio asked Hannibal to name the three greatest generals of history, he listed Alexander the Great first, the Greek Pyrrhus second, and himself third. When Scipio inquired what he would say if Hannibal had beaten him at Zama, Hannibal said that then he would list himself before Alexander and Pyrrhus! (Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 35.14).

Saturday, September 30, 2017

Memorizing Shakespeare: a Report from the Trenches

Paul Giamatti as Friar Lawrence
Given the busyness of the work week, I have had to content myself with just "passive" study of my lines in the upcoming production of Romeo and Juliet; I listened to my recording of eight or more times a day, as well as performing several read throughs.

But in the strength of my Saturday morning coffee, I knew I needed to make serious headway. A week from today is the first "Stumble Through" of the whole show with full cast, and I really want to be basically "out of book" when that happens. 


Mnemonic Qualities of Shakespeare

There is something I have noticed about how William Shakespeare writes. It seems to me that there are significant mnemonics built into the lines themselves. We know that Shakespeare was also an actor in his own productions. I don't know if anyone has ever suggested this before, but perhaps the Bard intentionally crafted his plays so that they would be easier to memorize. Perhaps that is even a piece of the puzzle for why he became so enormously successful--if you make the actors love your work, they are in a position to lobby for your shows to go on.

Now, some of the things I think make it easier to memorize than other works can also be described as literary devices. Even so, let me describe what I mean.

My part, that of Friar Lawrence, has several lengthy speeches. There's really no other way to memorize than to confirm you have a line, add another, and then confirm you have both, et cetera. And so the challenge, however obvious this sounds, is remembering what the next line is when you are finishing reciting one! 

In my first speech, while rhyme makes memorizing easier (but for some reason my speeches stop rhyming after Act II), the Bard has also built in some repetition internally in concept and words that helps me anticipate the next line:

The earth that's nature's mother is her tomb;
What is her burying grave that is her womb,
And from her womb children of divers kind
we sucking on her natural bosom find. (II.3)

Another example:

Fear comes upon me:
O, much I fear some ill unlucky thing. (V.2)

He also employs immediate repetition, which, for me anyway, serves almost like a mental pause, allowing me to think forward and get ready for what's coming:

Amen, Amen! but come what sorrow can, (II.6)

Come, come, we will make short work (II.6)

What simpleness is this! I come, I come! (III.3)

Take heed, take heed, for such die miserable. (III.3)

What could also be intentional alliteration equally serves to remind me of the next phrases:

Do thou but close your hands with holy words,
Then love-devouring death do what he dare: (II.6)

Hark, how they knock! Who's there? Romeo arise!
Thou wilt be taken. Stay awhile! Stand up; (III.3)


Progress Report

At any rate, I had a very productive day. I successfully recited, more than once in a row, nine of my eleven pages of lines from memory. After Church tomorrow we have an anniversary party for our priest and his wife, but in the evening I intend to make a new recording of my lines, which will include more inflection, now that I'm very versed in them.

Monday is the only day this week I am not scheduled for rehearsal after school, so I intend to come home and memorize the final two pages and be ready then in the context of practicing lines with the other actors to truly start moving them from mere recitation to full acting.

Opening night is November 2nd! Alright, I'm doing one more full read through before I relax...








Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Every Star Trek Fan Should be Watching "The Orville"!

With Star Trek veteran Brannon Braga as one of its producers, the new sci-fi/comedy/drama series The Orville, airing on Fox, isn't even trying to hide the fact that it is an homage to that more famous franchise. Change "The Union" to "Starfleet" and "Quantum Drive" to "Warp Speed" and tweak the uniforms, and scenes of the show look like Captain Picard and Warf could come around the corner at any moment.

And that is not at all a criticism! I love Star Trek! So why would I not love a show that essentially gives me my fix of that universe?

And, that said, the show, as it were, boldly goes where no Star Trek series has ever gone before--into a delightful combination of true comedy and engaging science fiction drama.  


With Seth MacFarlane (of Family Guy) as the creator/writer, it was always, of course, going to be hilarious. But it is also deeply thoughtful at times and additionally includes plenty of legitimately exciting science fiction/space action scenes.

We're only three episodes in, and they have already accomplished significant characterization of the cast that makes me understand their motivations and truly feel their reactions to situations. Fans of STNG will admit that the entire first season was somewhat choppy in that regard.

So, Star Trek fans, if you have not already done so, catch up while you're only a little behind, and enjoy the freshest science fiction show to air on TV since, well, to be honest...Star Trek: Enterprise went off the air...



Saturday, September 23, 2017

Romeo and Juliet: the Memorizing Begins...

Milo O'Shea as Friar Laurence
To prepare to play Friar Laurence in the upcoming production of Romeo and Juliet at Leonia High School, I first laid the groundwork with some passive learning. I wrote out all of my lines by hand (since I memorize best from my own handwriting). I recited them, recording it with Audacity and burned it to a CD to listen on my commute. All told, my lines come to a total of about 11 minutes. There are several very lengthy speeches in there, as well as shorter patches in dialogue with others.

For the last week and a half I have been listening to this non-stop whenever I am in the car. My commute each direction is 50 minutes (depending on traffic), so I have listened to my lines something like eight times a day. I have also read my lines out loud from my handwritten script once or twice daily.

I have committed to memory substantial amounts of the Bible in the original languages of Hebrew and Greek. And so I know what I have to do to actually memorize for recitation. I recite again and again the first few words or sentence. I look away from the script and confirm whether I have them now from memory. After I feel I have this selection now comfortably ready for recitation, I add another bit of words--ideally an entire extra line. And I then recite from the beginning, adding the new bit in. Rinse. Repeat. Ad infinitum. Ad nauseum.

I spent today about four hours on this project. I have eleven pages of handwritten script for my lines. While they are by no means solid, at one time or another I successfully recited six of these eleven pages from memory today.

As the only adult actor in the production, I certainly feel an enormous burden to be a leader and have my lines fully memorized before the students. Tomorrow morning, of course, is Church. Then, tomorrow afternoon, I will work over and confirm what I accomplished today. And then my goal is to memorize at least one more page.

As Friar Laurence would say in Latin, "Orate pro me!"


Tuesday, September 19, 2017

William Shakespeare's Involvement in the King James Version of Psalm 46: New Evidence?

As I continue to prepare for the role of Friar Laurence in our school's production of Romeo and Juliet, I recalled that there was a theory that maybe the Bard was involved in the shaping of the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible. If you know me, you know that I feel the need to explore and then present a potential solution on virtually any ancient puzzle I find. So, I clearly now want to weigh in on this one!


Just the Facts, Ma'am!

Here's what it boils down to. William Shakespeare was a writer of note when King James commissioned an English translation of the Bible for the Church of England. He could plausibly have been involved in its production.

It all swirls around the following facts, which, while possibly coincidental, are certainly intriguing.

William Shakespeare was 46 years old when the KJV was completed in 1611.

In the KJV of Psalm 46, the 46th word from the start is "shake." The 46th word from the end (omitting the Hebrew liturgical word "selah") is "spear."

1 God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
2 Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea;
3 Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains SHAKE (46) with the swelling thereof.
...
9 He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the SPEAR (46) in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire.
10 Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.
11 The Lord of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. [Selah]

Let's be honest, that's awfully intriguing! Some have suggested that maybe it's not really that big a coincidence, since in the even earlier Geneva Bible (1560) those same words appear in similar positions.

In the Geneva Bible, "shake" is at position 47. "Speare" is at position 44.

Fine, similar, but not at position 46, twice as it is in the King James Version!

Scholars are left to merely ponder the curiosity of the coincidence and decide whether it is so unlikely as to provide proof the playwright somehow crafted that text to leave a clue of his involvement, or whether it is just a quirk meaning nothing at all.


What About "William"?

I suggest that if he really did encode his last name in this psalm as a way to show his involvement, why not also encode his first name? The pieces of his first name are certainly in the translation. The word "will" occurs three times (verses 2 and 10 [bis]). And the words "I am" appear in verse 10. 

I will demonstrate that the position of these words could provide yet further evidence that William Shakespeare left evidence in this text about his participation in the project of the KJV.


Option One: Counting Once Again from the Front and Back

If you count from the beginning of Psalm 46, the word "WILL" is first encountered at position 14.

If you count from the end, and this time include the liturgical word "selah," the "I" of "I AM" occurs at position 32.

1 God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
2 Therefore WILL (14) not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea;
...
10 Be still, and know that I AM (31, 32) God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.
11 The Lord of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah.

14+32=46!
WILL+I AM=WILLIAM!

Now, keep in mind, the whole "shake" and "spear" thing described above relied on not counting the word "selah."  

So, would the Bard have really encoded his last name with one set of rules and then additionally encoded his first name with another?

The answer could bewhy not? 

He may have produced the final wording of this psalm and knew that it still had to go past a committee of scholars who would object to anything indelicate and unclear in the wording. In other words, he had to be careful and perhaps settled on one fairly clear clue and managed to slip in another that was only suggestive.


Option Two: Count from the Words "Shake" and "Spear"

If you start from the word "shake" in verse 3 and count toward the beginning, you arrive at "WILL" in verse 2 as the 32nd word.

If you start at the word "spear" in verse 9 and count toward the end, you arrive at the "AM" of "I AM" in verse 10 as the 16th word.

32/2=16

Interesting, but I personally find Option One more intriguing.


Conclusions

I find the positioning of WILL and I AM in this psalm to be yet another intriguing proof that the Bard did indeed take part in crafting the text of Psalm 46 and left evidence of that fact. Having spent now just a few days trying to memorize my lines for the upcoming play, I am continually amazed by the genius of William Shakespeare. And if he really did take part in that translation project and really did want to leave clues as to his involvement in the text, there may be much more out there yet waiting to be discovered.

Sunday, September 17, 2017

Returning to the Stage—After 34 Years—Pray for me...

One of the biggest regrets of my life is that I did not get into the high school theater group until I was a junior. My twin brother and I were recruited that year by the director to fill out the quartet of the Music Man because she learned we were church choir trained but previously untapped for the shows.

And it was grand fun! We loved the Music Man experience. Then I was the lead the following fall for a performance of The Night of January the 16th, and our group put on Grease that next Spring, in which I was Teen Angel, singing "Beauty School Drop-out" as a solo.

Most people that do theater in high school hold fond memories of it but never again stand upon a stage. Me included. College, grad school, in my case, a few years as a spy (check out my bio), then I assumed the quiet life of a high school Latin teacher. 

I have supported my school's superlative theater group over the years by never missing a show they have put on. And Leonia High School has nothing to be ashamed of in terms of the quality of high school shows they have presented in my time there.

Over the summer I learned that the directors are putting on Romeo and Juliet this November. And they invited faculty members to consider auditioning for a few roles that they thought might be best served by actual adults—some bit parts, some significant...

I'm not going to to lie. From the second I learned this, I knew I would audition. And I also immediately felt that, if I were to agree to stay after school for six weeks of practice, I would just as soon do something on the larger side.

I am humbled to announce that the directors have cast me in the role of Friar Lawrence. 

In the coming weeks I will be posting regular reflections on this experience. The first thing I did this weekend to start getting ready with my lines was to write them all out by hand (I memorize best that way). To the left is an example of such a page from my script. 

As a teacher in the school, I feel a responsibility to be an example to the students, and so I must present myself to the directors "out of book" much sooner rather than later.

I'll close on this thought. I vaguely remember a bit of Shakespeare in high school. And I have even wondered from time to time at why Leonia High School has such a significant amount of it in the curriculum.

Having written out just the lines of Friar Lawrence in preparation for my role, I was blown away by the artistry.

I will go on record as saying that I now understand that William Shakespeare is indeed the greatest author to have ever written in the English language.

Updates to follow...

 






Monday, September 4, 2017

Archive of the Pope's Latin Tweets

This post is an archive of Pope's Latin tweets I have grammatically studied.





September 4, 2017

June 18, 2017

June 17, 2017

June 16, 2017

June 15, 2017

June 14, 2017

June 13, 2017

June 8, 2017

May 13, 2017 #2

May 13, 2017 #1

May 8, 2017

March 4, 2017

February 21, 2017

February 20, 2017

February 19, 2017

February 18, 2017

February 15, 2017

February 14, 2017

February 12, 2017

February 11, 2017

February 10, 2017

February 9, 2017

February 4, 2017

February 3, 2017

February 2, 2017

January 29, 2017

January 28, 2017

January 27, 2017

January 26, 2017

December 31, 2016

December 30, 2016

December 29, 2016

December 28, 2016

December 26, 2016

December 25, 2016

December 23, 2016

December 19, 2016

December 17, 2016

December 11, 2016

December 8, 2016

December 4, 2016

December 3, 2016

November 30, 2016

November 27, 2016

November 25, 2016

November 20, 2016 #2

November 20, 2016 #1

November 19, 2016

November 18, 2016

November 13, 2016

November 12, 2016

November 11, 2016

November 10, 2016

November 9, 2016

November 7, 2016

November 6, 2016

November 5, 2016

October 30, 2016

October 29, 2016

October 28, 2016

October 27, 2016

October 26, 2016

October 25, 2016

October 23, 2016

October 22, 2016

October 21, 2016

October 20, 2016

October 19, 2016

October 18, 2016

October 17, 2016

October 16, 2016

October 15, 2016

October 14, 2016

October 13, 2016

October 11, 2016

October 10, 2016

October 9, 2016

October 8, 2016

October 6, 2016 #2

October 6, 2016 #1

October 1, 2016

September 30, 2016

September 29, 2016

September 22, 2016

September 21, 2016

September 19, 2016

September 18, 2016

September 17, 2016

September 16, 2016

September 13, 2016

September 11, 2016

September 10, 2016

September 9, 2016

September 8, 2016

September 7, 2016

September 6, 2016

September 5, 2016

September 4, 2016

September 3, 2016

September 2, 2016

September, 1, 2016

August 31, 2016

August 29, 2016 #2

August 29, 2016 #1

August 27, 2016

August 26, 2016

August 23, 2016

August 21, 2016

August 19, 2016

August 18, 2016

August 17, 2016

August 15, 2016

August 14, 2016

August 13, 2016

August 12, 2016

August 10, 2016

August 9, 2016

August 8, 2016

July 17, 2016

June 19, 2016

May 19, 2017

May 15, 2017

May 14, 2016

May 12, 2016

May 10, 2016

May 9, 2016

April 16, 2016

April 7, 2016

April 6, 2016

March 26, 2016

March 14, 2016 #3

March 14, 2016 #2

March 14, 2016 #1

February 17, 2016 #3

February 17, 2016 #2

February 17, 2016 #1

February 12, 2016

February 8, 2016

February 4, 2016

February 3, 2015

January 29, 2015

December 11, 2014

December 8, 2014

November 27, 2014

September 9, 2014

September 6, 2014

September 5, 2014

September 4, 2014

September 2, 2014

August 30, 2014

August 28, 2014

August 26, 2014

August 14, 2014 #2

August 14, 2014 #1

August 13, 2014 #2

August 13, 2014 #1

August 10, 2014 #3

August 10, 2014 #2

August 10, 2014 #1

August 9, 2014 #3

August 9, 2014 #2

August 9, 2014 #1

August 8, 2014 #3

August 8, 2014 #2

August 8, 2014 #1

August 7, 2014

August 5, 2014

August 2, 2014

July 29, 2014

July 24, 2014

July 22, 2014

July 19, 2014

July 17, 2014

July 15, 2014

July 12, 2014

July 10, 2014

July 8, 2014

July 3, 2014

July 1, 2014

June 30, 2014

June 29, 2014

June 28, 2014

June 27, 2014

June 26, 2014

June 24, 2014

June 23, 2014

June 20, 2014

June 19, 2014

June 17, 2014

June 16, 2014

June 14, 2014

June 13, 2014

June 12, 2014

June 9, 2014

June 8, 2014

June 7, 2014

June 6, 2014

June 5, 2014

June 3, 2014

June 2, 2014

May 31, 2014

May 30, 2014

May 29, 2014

May 24, 2014

May 23, 2014

May 22, 2014

May 20, 2014

May 19, 2014

May 17, 2014

May 16, 2014

May 15, 2014

March 24, 2013

The Pope's first tweet: March 17, 2013

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